By Ronald J. Deibert, John G. Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Jonathan Zittrain, Miklos Haraszti
Net filtering, censorship of web pages, and on-line surveillance are expanding in scale, scope, and class worldwide, in democratic nations in addition to in authoritarian states. the 1st new release of net controls consisted principally of creating firewalls at key net gateways; China's recognized ''Great Firewall of China'' is among the first nationwide net filtering structures. this day the hot instruments for net controls which are rising transcend mere denial of data. those new recommendations, which target to normalize (or even legalize) web regulate, comprise unique viruses and the strategically timed deployment of allotted denial-of-service (DDoS) assaults, surveillance at key issues of the Internet's infrastructure, take-down notices, stringent phrases of utilization regulations, and nationwide info shaping options. entry managed studies in this new normative terrain. The booklet, a undertaking from the OpenNet Initiative (ONI), a collaboration of the Citizen Lab on the collage of Toronto's Munk Centre for overseas reviews, Harvard's Berkman middle for net and Society, and the SecDev crew, deals six huge chapters that learn net keep an eye on in either Western and jap Europe and a piece of shorter local experiences and kingdom profiles drawn from fabric accrued via the ONI around the globe via a mix of technical interrogation and box learn tools. Chapter authors: Ronald Deibert, Colin Maclay, John Palfrey, Hal Roberts, Rafal Rohozinski, Nart Villeneuve, Ethan Zuckerman info Revolution and worldwide Politics sequence
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Extra info for Access controlled: the shaping of power, rights, and rule in cyberspace
And for simplicity, we treat everything between the client and the server as the network, including the wires over which the data travel and the routers that direct the traffic. We argue in this chapter that the EU data retention directive introduces new risks related to the networks of trust created by each category of surveillance. In the section on network surveillance we argue that trust can only be rerouted around the network, rather than removed from it, and that the EU data retention directive may cause users to reroute trust in the network in ways that both reduce the amount of useful data available to law enforcement and encourage users to expose more of their network data to non-EU states.
The legal mechanisms used by the overt track vary from country to country, but most share the characteristic of establishing double jeopardy for RUNET users, making requirements such that compliance sets the grounds for prosecution, and noncompliance establishes a legal basis for sanction. The following are among the more common legal mechanisms being applied: Compelling Internet sites to register with authorities and to use noncompliance as grounds for taking down or filtering ‘‘illegal’’ content, and possibly revoking service providers’ licenses.
There are a wide variety of different actors with different access to data.