By Gerd Gigerenzer
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Extra resources for Adaptive Thinking: Rationality in the Real World (Evolution and Cognition Series)
163). The evidence provided for projecting the machine into the mind is mainly rhetorical. For instance, Newell et al. , "set," "insight," "hierarchy") described in the earlier psychological literature on human problem solving. 's claim, the resemblance to these earlier concepts as they were used in the work of Karl Duncker, Wolfgang Kohler, and 33 34 WHERE DO NEW IDEAS COME FROM? others is slight. New discoveries, by definition, clash with what has come before, but it is often a useful strategy to hide the amount of novelty and to claim historical continuity.
The typewriter-sized Marchant calculator) could only add, subtract, multiply, and, with some difficulty, divide. , cubing a number) and passed the result on to another person, who incorporated it into yet another computation (Gleick, 1992). MIND AS COMPUTER important precondition for the view of mind as a computer is the realization that computers are symbol-manipulation devices in addition to being numerical calculators. Newell and Simon were among the first to realize this. In interviews with Pamela McCorduck (1979), Newell recalled, "I've never used a computer to do any numerical processing in my life" (p.
It even managed to find a proof more elegant than the corresponding one in the Principia Mathematica. In the summer of 1958, psychology was given a double dose of the new school of information-processing psychology. One dose was the publication of Newell, Shaw, and Simon's (1958) Psychological Review article, "Elements of a Theory of Human Problem Solving"; the other dose was the Research Training Institute on the Simulation of Cognitive Processes at the RAND Corporation, which we discuss later.