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Download Alkali and Alkaline earth metals (Periodic Table of the by Monica Halka PDF

By Monica Halka

Scientists categorize the chemical parts as metals, nonmetals, and metalloids mostly in response to the weather' skills to behavior electrical energy at general temperatures and pressures, yet there are different differences taken under consideration while classifying the weather within the periodic desk. The alkali metals, for instance, are metals, yet have such precise houses that they're given their very own class. an identical is right for the alkaline earths.

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Extra resources for Alkali and Alkaline earth metals (Periodic Table of the Elements)

Example text

Sodium Sodium forms a number of phosphate compounds. Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) reacts with NaOH to form sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH2PO4) and water. Sodium dihydrogen phosphate in turn reacts with NaOH to form sodium monohydrogen phosphate (Na2HPO4) and water. Finally, sodium monohydrogen phosphate reacts with NaOH to form sodium phosphate (Na3PO4). These reactions are shown by the following equations: H3PO4 (aq) + NaOH (aq) → NaH2PO4 (aq) + H2O (l) NaH2PO4 (aq) + NaOH (aq) → Na2HPO4 (aq) + H2O (l) Na2HPO4 (aq) + NaOH (aq) → Na3PO4 (aq) + H2O (l).

The subject of sodium atoms is found in much current scientific research. The transfer of angular momentum from laser light to particles was first accomplished in a small cloud of sodium atoms. Sodium metal has a very high reactivity (although it is not as reactive or as hazardous as potassium, rubidium, or cesium). An important use of the metal is to reduce the ores of less active metals to their neutral state. Examples include zinc, chromium, and titanium. Other uses of sodium include the following examples.

Since the alkali metals all have just one electron in their outer shells and the alkaline earth metals have two, they are located on the left edge of the periodic table on page 124 in the first and second columns. The following is the key to understanding each element’s information box that appears at the beginning of each chapter. Having an unfilled outer electron shell allows an element to react easily with others that can accommodate another electron Overview: Chemistry and Physics Background in an outer shell.

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